I see that, among my peers, I am much less likely to fall prey to alcoholism and much less likely to be suicidal as a result of being brought up in the laps of my elders, listening to stories and being engaged on a cultural level. In spite of those dire circumstances, there are solutions to these problems, and they often lie within Native communities, in the hearts and mind of Native people.
By convening and training educators, promoting cultural and language education, and building relationships with policymakers, NIEA champions the idea that centering learning around culture is the key to success for Native students. While their history has been scarred by efforts to annihilate culture and force assimilation, indigenous culture is full of rich, beautiful traditions, economic and social contributions, and deep and inspiring creativity and resilience.
For too long, the education system has served as a weapon against Native Americans. Comments are moderated to facilitate an open, honest and respectful conversation. While we never censor based on political or ideological viewpoints, we do not publish comments that are off-topic, offensive, or include personal attacks. If your comment seems to disappear shortly after posting, please know that it can take up to 24 hours for new comments to be approved.
Want more? Get our morning update and join us in Voices4Ed. Education Post. Close nav. Our Network Zahava Stadler. Posted Oct. By Chris Stewart Read Post. Many others have written about the distance between this sort of worldview and a Western approach, which separates the cognitive from other aspects of knowing and approaches learning in bits and pieces in a linear fashion and suggested how schooling in the U. We have long advocated for assessment tools and processes that are chosen for their flexibility in adapting to students' contexts and experiences Estrin and Nelson-Barber, 4 ; Koelsch and Estrin, ; Nelson-Barber and Trumbull, It can refer to a particular instrument a short quiz, a formal test, a group activity or to the general process of evaluation of learning.
Because it can be tightly linked to the curriculum taught and conducted in ways that are culturally appropriate, classroom assessment is more likely to approach cultural validity than assessment designed for large groups of students from multiple cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Formative assessment, in particular, has the potential to be tailored to students' and teachers' needs.
It entails ongoing evaluation of students' learning through any method suitable to gaining the information needed to judge a student's progress and determine what additional instruction may be needed to meet learning goals. In the ideal, it provides feedback that helps learners evaluate their own learning and engages them in self-reflection and setting learning goals Stobart, Formative assessment can be formal or informal. Formal formative assessment is planned in advance and may take the form of actual tests or performance tasks at various points during a grading period.
For instance, a teacher may move about the classroom and observe students' working on various tasks or sit in on a small group discussion; she may or may not take anecdotal notes as students try to solve a problem together Trumbull and Lash, Such observations, notes, and answers to questions will contribute to judgments about students' learning.
Informal assessment is continuous and likely the greatest source of teachers' judgments about student learning see, e. It is also an arena in which culture-based assumptions about how participants teacher and students should interact may promote or interfere with the accurate exchange of information.
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It is at the level of these informal social interactions—rife with invisible cultural shaping—that accurate information about student learning may or may not be exchanged between teacher and student. In successful interactions, students are able to show their learning, and teachers are able to give feedback that helps students judge their own learning and set goals for future learning.
Formative assessments can range from teacher observations during instruction to guided small-group discussion, cognitive interviews with students, peer group self-assessment, demonstrations or non-verbal presentations, and pencil-and-paper quizzes Basterra, But the most common form of formative assessment is a teacher's posing of oral questions during class discussions. This strategy has been touted as perhaps the most important formative tool Heritage and Heritage, Yet, it has been noted by numerous researchers that direct questioning is ineffective in engaging Native students Dumont, ; Philips, In fact, in a recent study in which we participated, teachers' use of students' oral responses during discussion to evaluate student learning and plan instruction was the one factor that was negatively associated with the performance of American Indian and Alaska Native students on NAEP mathematics assessment Huang et al.
Wholesale adoption of particular formative assessment strategies with Native students is clearly not advisable. But because formative assessment is so flexible, constrained only by the kind of evidence of learning needed, it can be shaped to be responsive to the cultural context.
If students do not respond adequately, the strategy at hand can be tossed out or modified. Because formative assessment is an ongoing process, without the high stakes of a standardized test, mistakes in evidence-gathering can be corrected without undue harm to students. An alternative to oral questioning of individual students is for the teacher to address the whole group and allow for choral response—students answering at once.
Nancy Sharp, a Yup'ik Eskimo teacher in Manokotak, Alaska, was documented using this choral response strategy during her teaching of a unit on Parkas and Patterns Lipka et al. Sharp is showing students pieces of a parka and coaching them on how to describe what they see and how those pieces will be used in what appears to be a highly relaxed, cooperative session.
She is engaging in ongoing, informal formative assessment of students' grasp of the task at hand. In a recent study, 40 12 Native, 28 Non-Native teachers of Native students in 10 schools in Alaska, New Mexico, and Arizona were interviewed about the assessment practices they used in their classrooms Trumbull et al.
Among the formative assessment strategies teachers reported using were various forms of observation, several techniques that relied very little on verbal interaction, peer and self-evaluation strategies that entailed goal-setting, and opportunities for student reflection and students' offering of feedback to the teacher about instruction. Teachers did report using direct questioning, but some lowered the spotlight on individual students by having them use white boards on which they could write a response and hold it up.
Two teachers from the Southwest, one Native and one non-Native opined that it was likely students' lack of confidence or their self-consciousness that prevented them from engaging in classroom questioning. Oddly, neither seemed to consider that there could be a cultural preference at play. It is a blatant understatement to say that approaches to the assessment of Indigenous students in the U. The failure to establish fair and effective assessment policies and practices for Indigenous students is particularly frustrating for two reasons: first, because of the potentially damaging consequences of assessments that are ill-matched to students' needs and second, because of the fact that we already know a great deal about what it would take to work toward that ideal.
There are a few encouraging signs in the realm of large-scale assessment in a related arena, the assessment of bilingual students and English learners. Finally, the testing community has acknowledged that tests designed for native English speakers may not be appropriate for students who are still learning English. Whereas, assessment of students through the use of more than one language is clearly the most desirable approach, for a host of reasons including time, cost, and specialized human resources this approach is not likely to be widely implemented.
Instead, test developers are actively looking for ways to improve the validity of those tests for English learners by modifying the language and structure of tests or offering a range of accommodations, based on a considerable body of research conducted during the past two decades. Accommodations such as glossaries and bilingual dictionaries that help students identify the meaning of everyday or academic words that may not be common in their environments and that have nothing to do with the subject matter per se have been shown to be useful in reducing test bias Kieffer et al.
For students more proficient in a language other than English, providing assessments in their home languages has, not surprisingly, been shown to result in better performance than use of assessments in English Kieffer et al. But, for both political and financial reasons, this practice, which would increase the validity of assessment for many students, is an infrequent practice. In the realm of classroom assessment, formative assessment has gained currency—boding well for Indigenous students, because formative assessment by its very definition is closely aligned with classroom instructional content and processes.
Although psychometricians debate what constitutes validity in formative assessment, the argument can be made that this form of assessment has the potential for greater validity than any standardized educational assessment because it can take any form that engages a student. Thus, it is more likely to elicit information about his or her learning. Moreover, the same constructs can be examined from different perspectives, using different tools; and the teacher and student can work together to determine when and how to assess a construct.
The Significance of Culture-based Education in Philippines
Trumbull et al. But most teachers of Indigenous students need extended professional development to learn about successful strategies already identified and to explore and experiment with methods appropriate to their own settings. Such professional development cannot be generic but must have the strong participation of Indigenous educators, who understand issues of language, culture, and the history of Indigenous schooling.
Research on professional development in general Darling-Hammond et al. Ultimately, achieving cultural validity in the assessment of Indigenous students in the U. Assessment legislation or educational policies that do not take into account the specific needs of Indigenous populations are not destined to promote such cultural validity we have only to look at the impact of No Child Left Behind.
Indigenous students deserve assessment systems—linked to culturally-responsive curriculum and instruction— that are fair and equitable. Much is known about how to carry out the task. What remains is the will to act on that knowledge. The article stems from work on which the two authors have collaborated for more than 25 years and expresses their joint thinking on issues in the assessment of Indigenous students.
ET did much of the writing, but SN-B's input was equally important. Some of the material in this document is based upon learnings from work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant awards No. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of author s and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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5 steps to becoming a culturally responsive teacher
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They often take action to silence them. As teachers or teacher educators, we can probably all recall examples of these different communication styles.
5 steps to becoming a culturally responsive teacher | Teach Away
We can also measure how difficult it is to let go of the style that our primary and secondary socialization led us to focus on, or our preferred style. The Viewpoint in this issue by Steven Van Hook reports on a study designed to understand whether particular themes and images that transcend cultural dimensions may be used in teaching a student body whose students come from many cultures. The research participants were students enrolled in an international, university-level business course.
Although this goal stands in contrast to the objectives of this special issue as a whole, his findings and discussion contribute to multicultural educational policies and practices. One conclusion the author draws is that teachers might avoid using content related to humour, nationalism, sex, and religion in multicultural classrooms and instead use themes that reflect the dynamics of interpersonal relationships, and images related to sports and babies. The idea of making cultural differences a secondary concern is controversial.
This goal is based in a belief that differences are a risk or problem in learning and can keep students from gaining knowledge about multiple cultures. It raises many questions. For example, should we avoid explicitly addressing religious differences in the classroom, or is it an important part of education to approach all religions with a critical lens? On the other hand, an initially transcultural approach may provide a safe base for culturally relevant teaching. That is, by beginning with material that seems to transcend many cultures, teachers may provide a secure base for initiating intercultural interactions that can later facilitate more in-depth cultural explorations and understandings that are fundamental to intellectual and identity development.
Although it was not part of the study reported here, Van Hook raises an important question about the dominant role that the English language plays in international business education. Both of these issues, transculturalism and language of instruction, have implications for educational practices and policies.
Because students come from and return to varied and different cultural settings, they are key stakeholders in either maintaining the status quo or contributing to social transformation. They also examined the populations and issues that were the target of these projects. They conclude that a lack of deconstructivist worldviews in this research limits the possibilities for transformation and that issues of access and equity have not been addressed to date.
This case raises an important question: How well is university education in the Pacific placed to support students in learning and applying a deconstructivist worldview that can contribute to social transformation? It also provides historical context for policies and practices in the Pacific Rim. This case raises complex issues; thus, it is often consistent with points made by other authors in this volume, while sometimes calling their points into question.
In this special issue each article addresses historical artifacts, and national and educational policies that impact the opening of educational systems to cultural diversity. Efforts to address national languages and official languages of instruction have resulted in multicultural educational policies. The cases in Brazil, of public schools described by Akkari and an international school described by Bagnall, identify many of the challenges in opening educational systems within a conservative context and offer specific strategies for addressing obstacles.
Suggestions for educating indigenous teachers, and implementing positive and ethnic quotas in some institutions, highlight international approaches that have been adapted to local contexts. In summary, all approaches that seriously consider the role of culture in educational processes are based on two assumptions. First, they see the languages, cultures, and diverse perspectives of students as essential resources and not as risks or problems.
Second, they emphasize that all forms of schooling are culturally and politically constructed as a historical product of particular groups with particular interests and values specific to a particular moment in the history of a society. Skip to main content Skip to sections.
Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Introduction—Opening educational systems to cultural diversity: International and comparative perspectives. As Delpit stated, when we teach across boundaries of race, class, and gender—which is the reality when we teach—we must identify and overcome the power differentials, stereotypes, and other barriers that prevent us from seeing each other as both teacher and learner.
These efforts should guide teacher training, school curriculum development, instructional strategies, and every aspect of the educational process. Until we can see the world as others see it, at least partially, all the educational reforms in the world will fail.
Thus, addressing cultural differences i. It seems obvious that culturally appropriate education allows teacher and student to construct a pedagogical relationship that involves not submission to the other, but willingness to submit to an exchange with the other Meirieu Gewirtz and Cribb suggested a critical version of multiculturalism: More sophisticated approaches start from an anti-essentialist position. Gay says that learning culturally appropriate uses of the characteristics, experiences, and perspectives of students from various ethnic groups is a priority in any framework for teaching.
Culturally appropriate education includes several specific efforts: educators must develop a knowledge base on cultural diversity, integrate cultural and linguistic diversity into the curriculum, express a permanent concern for the lives of all students and for building learning communities, and communicate with students in ways that reflect cultural diversity.
Akkari, A. Google Scholar. From accommodating to using diversity by teachers in Switzerland. The Journal of Multiculturalism in Education, 7 1 , 1— Entre globalisation et diversification [Transformations of education systems in developing countries between globalization and diversification]. Bruxelles: De Boeck. Au, K.
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Empowering minority students: A framework for intervention. Harvard Educational Review, 56 1 , 18—